Monday, 16 December 2013

Goodbye 2013, Hello future

 We were asked to finish all of our science fair projects. Here is a document of some question and guidelines that apply for the science fair. Fill out this form if you want to propose a question that isn't on that document. If you want to do a question in partners, you fill out this form.



Letter to parents: What is the basic information about the Science Fair?  (This is the letter already sent to parents.)
Mid-year form. You give your opinion about science class for the first semester. Mid-Year Science Class Survey

We then watched a video about how air pollution might make our sunset better.
It talks about how air pollutant might make a deeper, redder sunset.




a. What are forms of transportation that make less air pollution? - Eyes of Nye (No link


A form of transportation that causes zero exhaust is the hydrogen fuel cell car. It had hydrogen and oxygen. Hydrogen is all around us;  we find it in water, H20, methane, and CH4( poop). 

The best alternative to pollution is making these cars: Hydrogen fuel cells. You can a little motor for about 100 dollars.


We humans created this car because of the increased air pollution.




One of the downsides to this is we have to make hydrogen by using energy, which comes from burning fossil fuels. Also, it is hard to store hydrogen in big tanks and brings some risks. Another downside is it can only go 120 miles on charge, and it takes 4 hours to charge. That's why manufactures are starting to make cars with both electric and gasoline based motors. 


Another thing humans can do to decrease pollution is buying smaller cars, which don't pollute as much. However, people feel "safer" in big cars, so everyday we see less smaller cars and more bigger vehicles.
The air pollution in some places has grown so much, like in China, that people in China are having to buy air filters for cleaner air!


The reason why São Paulo has so much traffic and is so polluted is because the city grew too fast. In about 30 years, the population grew so rapidly the city didn't have enough roads for all the people.


We reviewed the form about the class' opinion. 






Experiment with exhaust: 
At the end of class, we went to the parking lot and tried to see how much pollution came from Mr. Pro's motorcycle. This is a picture showing the negative kinds of air pollution and the device that we use to measure the pollution. 

This is us setting up the experiment in the parking lot to measure the amount of exhaust coming from Mr. Pro's motorcycle. 






video

https://www.google.com/search?q=cars+with+gasoline+and+electric+motors%5C%5C&espv=210&es_sm=91&source=lnms&tbm=isch&sa=X&ei=wFusUrfVOKelsQSUk4CIAw&ved=0CAkQ_AUoAQ&biw=1278&bih=679#facrc=_&imgdii=_&imgrc=-L48WgcLV8KVLM%3A%3BSHS1A-Egwk3fGM%3Bhttp%253A%252F%252Fwww.mechanicalengineeringblog.com%252Fwp-content%252Fuploads%252F2011%252F03%252F01-hybrid-cars-gasoline-electric-hybrid-system-with-internal-combustion-engine_thumb.jpg%3Bhttp%253A%252F%252Fwww.mechanicalengineeringblog.com%252Ftag%252Fgasoline-electric-hybrid-system%252F%3B450%3B221






Wednesday, 11 December 2013

Stay Alert! Students At Work!

This class, we made an investigation about air pressure and how it can do. We made many experiments to figure out what air pressure can do.

An example is the water and straw experiment where you put your thumb on the top of the straw that is immerse in water and prevent air from entering the straw from the top. Therefore, air pressure prevents the water inside the straw from leaving since the air on the opposite side of the straw is trying to get in it.

Another experiment was the one that we lit a fire inside a bottle, put your hand on the top, and your hand gets "glued" to the bottle. This happens because all the oxygen inside the bottle is burned by the fire, thus the oxygen outside tries to get in, making the bottle stick to your hand.

Furthermore, we did another experiment as well where you blow the balloon inside a cup and the cup sticks to the balloon. This happens because the balloon drives the air out of the cup, creating pressure on too if the cup and making it stick to the surface of the balloon.

Moreover, we performed another experiment where the newspaper seems really heavy to lift up with a ruler. For this to happen, the air on top of the newspaper needs to make pressure on top of the newspaper, making it "heavier".

P.S. Sorry because there are on photos. I will add them as soon as possible because I had a technical difficulty.

Tuesday, 10 December 2013

Air Pressure!



10/12/13
Today, the last science class in the semester, was very fun, and we learned lots of things. Mr. Pro started off by giving the diagrams (which were about the carbon cycle) back, and the whole class got at least 80%. For those who don't remember, these are the elements that add and take away CO2:


The following (1-5) add CO2  → atmosphere
Amount of Carbon movement per year /Gigatons from
"Carbon Dioxide in Earth's Atmosphere."
States of matter for carbon
1) Volcanoes
0.2
solid → gas
2) Forest fires, both man-made and natural
2.4
solid → gas
3) Burning of fossil fuels
34
solid, liquid, gas → gas
4)Animals breathing
?
solid, liquid → gas
5) Decomposition of dead plants, phytoplankton, algae, animals
170
solid, liquid → gas
The following (6-10) remove CO2  ←  atmosphere


6) Land Plants
121.3
gas → solid
7) Phytoplankton
48
gas → solid
8) Ocean water, which CO2  dissolves in and becomes acidic
2.8
gas → liquid
9) Algae
2
gas → solid
10) plants, phytoplankton, corals, animals that become sediment (rock)
10
gas → solid



The instrument used to measure ammonia
After reflecting about what we did wrong and well in the diagram, Mr Pro showed us how to measure ammonia. The machine used is very interesting, but we didn't have enough ammonia with us, so we took some from the other science class.

The machine needs twenty minutes to work, so while we waited, we chose our question for the Science Fair. There are around 100 possible questions which are displayed for us in the science blog. If you wanted to propose your own question, you needed to fill in a form. Also, if you wanted to do the project with a partner, you needed a form as well.




Mr. Pro putting in the amount of water
that is needed to do the measuring






















After all the measuring, Mr. Pro introduced us to six experiments that we needed to do, which all related to air pressure. First, we needed to hypothesise about what we thought would happen in each experiment, and then we should did them, and wrote down some observations. Here are the experiments:



Method A:
Transfer Water with a Straw
  1. Put the straw in the water.
  2. Place your finger or thumb on top of the straw.
  3. Move the straw to another container and let your thumb go.
  4. Try using different objects to seal the straw.  
Method B:
Balloon Cups
  1. Wipe off the balloon.
  2. Inflate the balloon partially.
  3. Pinch the balloon so no air escapes.
  4. Get a partner to put one cup on the end of the balloon.
  5. Inflate the balloon more.  
  6. Predict what will happen to the cups.
Method C:
The Heavy Newspaper
  1. Be sure the ruler is under the newspaper and the ruler is about 2-3 cm from the end.
  2. Strike the ruler with your hand.
  3. Predict what will happen to the newspaper and ruler.
Method D:
The Magic Beaker
  1. Crumble a very small piece newspaper and put it in a small beaker.
  2. Light the newspaper and put it in the beaker.  Do this over a container, so if you drop the glass it doesn’t break.
  3. immediately put your hand over the beaker and seal it.  Be careful not to burn yourself.
Method E:
The Live Balloon
  1. Heat up lots of water using the kettle.
  2. Put the water into the big beaker.
  3. Cool off the test tube by running it under tap water or by putting it in ice water.
  4. Place gently the glass test tube into the beaker.
  5. Predict what will happen to the balloon on top of the glass test tube.
Method F:
The Candle Under the Jar
  1. Get a timer ready.
  2. Predict how long each candle will burn under each containers.
  3. Light the candles and simultaneously put the containers on top.
  4. Record the time at which each flame goes out.
  5. Predict which container will burn the longest.


Experiment A
Experiment B

Experiment E
Experiment F


Always use safety goggles!
The skills we used:

  • Using the instrument for measuring ammonia
  • Using safety goggles
  • Writing down observations
  • Working with partners


                             Have a great Christmas and a happy New Year!








Cool Air Sampling Pump, More Investigations, and the Science Fair

As usual, we started class with the class agenda:

Next, Mr. Pro demonstrated an air sampling pump (LaMotte) that Mr. Broderick left before he left. We have concluded that the air in Mr. Pro's classroom was pretty clean. 




After, we collected our diagrams back and checked how much we got on it. We were given feedback from Mr. Pro. Overall, everybody did a great job. Some of the best diagrams were volunteered for show just above the lockers outside Mr. Pro's classroom.


As we put our diagrams in a safe place, we moved on to the 6 part investigation which we spent most of our class time on. As we always do, we went over the methods of each investigation while Mr. Pro demonstrated.
Method A:
Transfer Water with a Straw
  1. Put the straw in the water.
  2. Place your finger or thumb on top of the straw.
  3. Move the straw to another container and let your thumb go.
  4. Try using different objects to seal the straw.  
Method B:
Balloon Cups
  1. Wipe off the balloon.
  2. Inflate the balloon partially.
  3. Pinch the balloon so no air escapes.
  4. Get a partner to put one cup on the end of the balloon.
  5. Inflate the balloon more.  
  6. Predict what will happen to the cups.
Method C:
The Heavy Newspaper
  1. Be sure the ruler is under the newspaper and the ruler is about 2-3 cm from the end.
  2. Strike the ruler with your hand.
  3. Predict what will happen to the newspaper and ruler.
Method D:
The Magic Beaker
  1. Crumble a very small piece newspaper and put it in a small beaker.
  2. Light the newspaper and put it in the beaker.  Do this over a container, so if you drop the glass it doesn’t break.
  3. immediately put your hand over the beaker and seal it.  Be careful not to burn yourself.
Method E:
The Live Balloon
  1. Heat up lots of water using the kettle.
  2. Put the water into the big beaker.
  3. Cool off the test tube by running it under tap water or by putting it in ice water.
  4. Place gently the glass test tube into the beaker.
Method F:
The Candle Under the Jar
  1. Get a timer ready.
  2. Predict how long each candle will burn under each containers.
  3. Light the candles and simultaneously put the containers on top.
  4. Record the time at which each flame goes out.
  5. Predict which container will burn the longest.

During the preparation and demonstrations, we wrote down our predictions. When we were done recording our predictions, we grabbed our goggles and paired up to being the investigation.








Method A:
       Transfer Water with a Straw
 












Method B:
       Balloon Cups














Method C:
       The Heavy Newspaper


Method D:
       The Magic Beaker

















Method E:
       The Live Balloon













Method F:
       The Candle Under the Jar













Observations
After we have investigated, we put down observations we made for some methods on the bottom of the method document.

Method A:
Transfer Water with a Straw

Method B:
Balloon Cups
The balloon was pushed inside the cup.

The balloon is elastic so it pushed air out of the cup.  The cup has low pressure and the air outside the cup is higher.  
Method C:
The Heavy Newspaper
The flask sticks to the palm of your hand

Outside the flask is higher pressure so it pushes your hand into the flask.
Higher temperature in the flask caused lower pressure.  
Method D:
The Magic Beaker
Method E:
The Live Balloon
Method F:
The Candle Under the Jar
The candle under the smallest jar went out in 5.0s.  medium 15s and the big jar 35s

The smallest went out first because there’s less air which means there’s less oxygen so the candle burns all the oxygen first.  

Science Fair
           We will be having our Science Fair on the February 27th. To see more information (Schedule, Rubric, and Possible Questions) check this document. If you want to propose a group, fill out this form. If you want to propose a research question, fill out this form.