Wednesday, 20 November 2013

Reviewing air pressure and test correction

test corrections
 Mr.Pro reviewed the most challenging questions with the class.
Science 7.2:  KEY Atmosphere



Nov 13th, 2013
Student Name:   _____________________ Block:  ___
Time Allowed: 60 minutes
Instructions to student: Answer all questions on the test pages with well-communicated solutions.
Teacher: Justin Prophet
Fill in the blanks before you begin the test:
I studied _______ times for this test.
I studied a total of _______ hours for this test.
I studied by myself/with friends.
I predict I will get ________ on this test.

Graded
Achievement Descriptors
Letter: %
& Score
Test Descriptor
The student work demonstrates meeting the criteria for the learning goal(s) in original and insightful ways. Work reflects a consistent and thorough understanding of the explicitly taught content and skills.. Strong evidence of analysis, synthesis, and/or evaluation.
A: 90-100


99

  • I answered 60% of the A questions correctly.
  • I answered 60% of the D, C & B questions correctly.
The student work demonstrates mastery of the learning goal(s). There are no major errors or omissions regarding any of the content and skills that were explicitly taught. Some evidence of analysis, synthesis and/or evaluation; may demonstrate originality and insight.
B: 80-89


89
  • I answered less than 60% of the A questions correctly.
  • I answered 60% of the D, C & B questions correctly.
The student work demonstrates an acceptable mastery of the content and skills.  The student exhibits understanding in standard ways to show learning. Little to no evidence of analysis, synthesis and/or evaluation.
C: 70-79


79

  • I answered less than 60% of the A & B questions correctly.
  • I answered most of the D & C questions correctly.
The student work demonstrates a limited understanding of the required content and skills, reflecting limited achievement towards the learning goal(s), or clear difficulties in some areas.The student may require support to complete more complicated tasks and encouragement to show learning.
D: 65-69


69

  • I answered less than 60% of the A, B & C questions correctly.
  • I answered most of the D questions correctly.
The student work shows minimal or very limited achievement towards the learning goal(s). The work reflects a difficulty in communicating understanding for the required content and skills and  with no evidence of application, even with support.
F: Below 65


0 to 59
  • I answered less than 60% of every section correctly.

Your Test Level:  F  D  C  B  A
Test Reflection: Do all of the test corrections on your test in a different colour
I am (not/sort of/kind of/very) pleased with my results because ...give a reason
marking notes:
  • 0.5 means half a mark
  • 12 means one out of two marks

Unit 2 Test:

Level D:

Answer the questions correctly to demonstrate a limited understanding of the required content.


Vocabulary: Match the definition in the second column with the words in the last column.  Write the letter from the definition on the line after the word.  The first one is done for you.

letter
Definition
#
Word
a
movement in a gas or liquid in which the warmer parts move up and the colder parts move down
1
altitude _g__
b
a natural movement of air outside often due to differences in air pressure
2
atmosphere __r_
c
a region with particular weather patterns or conditions; the average weather in a region over years
3
climate _c__
d
a state of matter in which particles are far apart and moving around very quickly
4
condensation __p_
e
a strong current of fast winds high above the Earth's surface
5
convection _a__
f
ability to do work; ability to change things
6
density __j_
g
height of something (such as an airplane) above the level of the sea
7
differential heating __v_
h
H2O that falls to the ground as rain, snow, etc.
8
displace (v.) __t_
i
height of the sea
9
energy _f__
j
mass divided by volume
10
evaporate (v.) __s_
k
moving thermal energy
11
gas _d__
l
something pushes against something else over a certain area
12
global winds _m__
m
the movement of air between cooler regions and warmer regions of the Earth
13
heat energy _k__
n
the movement of air from the land to the sea or ocean
14
jet stream __e_
o
the movement of air within a local area such as a beach
15
land breeze __n_
p
the process by which a gas cools and becomes a liquid
16
local winds _o__
q
the state of the air and atmosphere at a particular time and place
17
precipitation __h_
r
the whole mass of air that surrounds the Earth
18
pressure __l_
s
to change from a liquid into a gas [no obj]
19
reflect (v.) _u__
t
to move (something) so that it is no longer in its original or regular location or position
20
sea level _i__
u
to move in one direction, hit a surface, and then quickly move in a different and usually opposite direction
21
weather __q_
v
uneven warming up of land, ocean or other objects on Earth
22
wind _b__
Short answer questions:
  1. Write down a measuring device to measure temperature. [1] thermometer/temperature probe  

  1. Write down the base unit for mass. [1] grams/kilograms

  1. Write down the definition of density. [1] mass divided by volume

  1. Write down the quantity for the units liters.[1] volume

  1. Complete the following sentence by filling in the blank with one word: Objects that are more dense than the fluids they are in will _______________.[1]  sink/go down

  1. Write down the layer of the atmosphere where all things live and all weather is. [1] troposphere  

  1. Write down the two main gases that the atmosphere is made of.  [1] nitrogen and oxygen

  1. Write down the main energy change when sunlight hits the surface of the earth.  [1] sunlight → heat/thermal energy
  2. For temperature:
    1. Write down a unit for temperature. [1] degrees Celsius / Fahrenheit
    2. Write down the symbol for the unit of temperature. [1]  (C)/(F)


Level C:

Answer the questions correctly to demonstrate an acceptable mastery of the content.


Fill in the blanks: write a word or phrase in the blanks to complete the sentences. [1 mark each)


  1. Weather associated with low pressure areas is __________rainy/cloudy_________
  2. Wind blows from _____high_____ pressure to _____low____ pressure. high, low
  3. Imagine a quantity of gas.  Fill in the blanks with increase/decrease/stays the same.
    1. As the volume decreases, the pressure ______increases______.
    2. As the volume decreases, the density______increases______.
  4. The energy of wind originally comes from _________sunlight/the sun/solar radition_____.
  5. A boy has a mass of 50 _________kilograms_____.
  6. A gas tank has a volume of 70 __________liters___.


Short answer questions:
  1. The layers are stratosphere, mesosphere, troposphere and thermosphere.
    1. Write down the order of the atmospheric layers from the surface of the earth to space.  [2]   
troposphere, stratosphere, mesosphere, thermosphere
    1. Write down the layer of the atmosphere that is the coldest. [1]
mesosphere
    1. Write down the least dense layer of the atmosphere of the four above. [1]
thermosphere
  1. Use the image on the right to answer the questions:
    1. Write down the name of the measuring device being used. [1]
electronic scale/scale
    1. Write down the quantity it measures. [1]
mass
  1. Density is mass divided by volume.  Calculate the density of an object with a mass of 1.6g and a volume of 3.2mL.  [2]
1.6g3.2ml = 0.5 g/mL  Show your work
  1. Write down the main quantity that scientists measure and use to determine the layers of the atmosphere. [1] temperature

  1. Write down one reason why the stratosphere is important to us. [1] it absorbs/blocks/filters UV radiation
  2. Define displace. [2] to move (something) so that it is no longer in its original or regular location or position

  1. Write down two different things we can measure to predict the weather.  [2]
temperature/wind speed/wind direction/air pressure/humidity
  1. Describe the thermosphere. [2]
it’s the least dense and hottest layer of the atmosphere/closest layer to space/4th layer from the ground

Level B: Answer the questions correctly to demonstrate mastery of the learning goals.



Short Answer Questions:
  1. When dry ice is put into water, it sinks and bubbles.  
    1. Describe why the dry ice sinks.  [1]
it’s denser than water
    1. Describe why the bubbles rise to the surface.[1]
bubbles are less dense than water
  1. Compare local winds to global winds. [2]
global winds occur over big areas (such as between the tropics and northern and southern regions) and local winds occur in smaller areas (such as beaches)
  1. The following method is performed:
      1. Find the mass of a deflated ball.
      2. Inflate the ball.
      3. Find the mass of the inflated ball.
Describe the conclusion/deduction of the experiment. [2]
The mass of the ball increased when it was inflated because air was put in the ball and air has mass

  1. The following is the altitude of different places in the world.  Predict and put the places in order of highest pressure to lowest pressure:  Belo Horizonte 850m, Jakarta 20m, Sucre 2800m, and Brasilia 1200m.
Jakarta 20m, Belo Horizonte 850m,Brasilia 1200m, Sucre 2800m, / 1 mark for the reverse order

  1. When sunlight hits water, describe two things that can happen to the light. [2]
Sunlight can be reflected and or absorbed.  If sunlight is absorbed it changes to heat/thermal energy.  if it’s reflected, it stays as light.

  1. The following fluids with the following densities are placed in the same closed container. Predict the order of the layers of the fluids from bottom to top: diet pop (1.07g1mL),  water (1.00g1mL), mercury (13.60g1mL),  carbon dioxide (0.0020g1mL), and peanut oil (0.870g1mL).
mercury (13.60g1mL),, diet pop (1.07g1mL),  water (1.00g1mL), peanut oil (0.870g1mL). carbon dioxide (0.0020g1mL),

  1. The following data is collected to find the density of an object.
  • Starting volume of water in a measuring cylinder: 19.0mL
  • Final volume of water after the object is placed in the measuring cylinder: 31.2 mL
  • Mass of object: 24.4 g
Density is mass divided by volume.  Find the density of the object. [3 - show your work! Don’t forget to include the units!]
volume = 31.2 - 19 = 12.2 mL
density=massvolume=24.4g12.2 mL= 2.0 gmL

  1. Describe why darker land (such as black sand) becomes hotter than lighter land (such as white sand). [2]
Darker land absorbs light (that’s why it’s dark) and the lights changes to heat energy, while lighter land reflects more light (so less light changes to heat).

Level A: Questions that are unfamiliar so they demonstrate meeting (and mastery of) the criteria for the learning goals in original and insightful ways


  1. Explain why the water in the cup show in the image below didn’t fall out. [2]air pressure pushes on the bottom of the card.  The air pressure pushing up is greater than the water pressure pushing down so the card doesn’t move




  1. The weather is constantly changing.  Explain two of the main causes of weather change. [4]
Sunlight causes weather change
Temperature changes: Differential heating of the surface of the earth causes weather changes.  Certain parts of the earth heat up more than others because:
  • they are different colours.  darker areas absorb more light and heat up more than colour areas.
  • they are at different latitudes (some are close to the equator; some are near the poles)
differences in heating results in different temperatures.  Different temperature surfaces heat up the atmosphere above them to different temperatures.  
Wind Creation: When gases change temperature they change pressure.  So some areas that become higher temperatures have become lower pressure.  Lower temperature areas become higher pressure.  Air moves from high pressure to low pressure creating wind.
Rain Creation: sunlight causes water to evaporate and form clouds.  Clouds sometimes form rain.
Spin of the earth: the earth spins so that half of the earth is always in darkness and cooling and half of the world is always in light and warming up.  The warming and cooling off different parts of the world creates the temperature differences between day and night.
tilt of the earth: the earth is tilted on its axis so that the amount of sunlight varies at different times in the year.  differences in sunlight result in different temperatures




  1. Explain how we breathe using your knowledge of pressure and volume.  You may use a diagram to aid your explanation. [3]

When you breathe in, the volume of your lungs expands and therefore, the pressure decreases.  The air pressure outside your lungs is higher than inside your lungs, so air rushes into your lungs.  
When you breathe out, the volume of your lungs becomes smaller, so the pressure becomes higher.  The air pressure is greater inside your lungs than outside so pressure goes out.  












  1. The image on the right is a satellite image showing the thickness of the ozone layer.  The darker areas - like over Antarctica - indicate a thinner ozone layer, and the lighter areas indicate a thicker ozone layer.  Explain a difference you would expect to find if you compared areas with normal thickness of the ozone layer to areas that have a thin ozone layer. [2]

We would expect to have higher levels of UV radiation in darker areas (like Antarctica) than lighter areas/  We would expect to find higher rates of skin cancer or sunburns in darker areas than lighter areas. /more glacial melting in thinner areas because less radiation is being blocked
1 mark given: more sunlight in thinner areas/colder in thinner areas and hotter in thicker



58.  The image on the right shows a hurricane over the Atlantic Ocean.
a) Hurricanes have high speed winds and lots of water.  Explain why hurricanes always form in tropical areas over the ocean. [3]

Over tropical oceans, sunlight heats up the water.  the energy of sunlight causes lots of water to evaporate.  The water heats up the air forming a low pressure area.  Also,  The hot air rises and air from surroundings rushes in from all directions.  
Outside the tropics, there is not enough sunlight to evaporate and heat up lots of water.





Some rights reserved by NASA Goddard Photo and Video

We can create an area of low pressure at the top.  Then the normal air pressure will push the water up to the air of lower pressure.  For example, when you ‘suck’ on a straw, the air moves from high pressure on the water, to the area of low pressure in your mouth.  
The problem is that the water can only be pumped to a maximum height of 10m this way.  So, for a deep mine that’s hundreds of meters deep, too many pumps would be needed.
Two new innovations enabled one pump to pump water up hundreds of meters: high pressure pumps and the engine.
 













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